History of Southeast Asia
Episode 3, Mandalas
The first Southeast Asian nations larger than a city-state appeared in or near the first century A.D. In other words, roughly two thousand years ago. This episode will look at Funan, the major state that arose in Cambodia, and medium-sized states like Dvaravati, Haripunjaya, Pan Pan, Langkasuka, and Tambralinga, which the Mons and Malays founded in present-day Thailand and northern Malaya.
This map from Wikipedia shows the centers of political power on the Southeast Asian mainland in 1360 A.D. The episode refers to this map while explaining the loose monarchies that characterized Southeast Asian states in ancient times, a system we sometimes call "mandalas."
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